The Sale Process

The Sale Process

The business sale process has a number of distinct stages and typically takes 6 to 10 months to complete.

The Business Sale Process

Finding the Right Buyer

Finding the Right Buyer

There are strategic and financial buyers. The best buyer is the one that benefits the most from the purchase.

Finding the Right Buyer



A business's value is determined by market comparables as well as business specific analysis.



Form of Payment: Should You Accept an Earn-Out?

Public company take-over bids typically consist of all cash or a combination of cash and shares.  Consideration in private company acquisitions will usually include a sizable portion in cash (50 to 100%) but will often include an unsecured note and/or an earn-out.  This is typically because: (i) the buyer does not have (or have access to)…


Why is the Letter of Intent (LOI) so Important?

Why is the Letter of Intent (LOI) so important? Because, in the context of a business sale, it marks the critical point where power shifts from the seller to the buyer. What I mean by this is that an LOI typically includes a term requiring exclusivity.  Exclusivity means the seller has to stop engaging with…

Comparable Company Analysis

Valuation – Comparable Company Analysis vs DCF

There are a number of approaches to valuing a business. There are market based approaches such as public company trading multiples and comparable transaction analyses and cashflow and earnings based methodologies such as the Discounted Cashflow (DCF) analysis.  In this post we review both market based approaches and company forecast analysis. Comparable Transaction Analysis Let’s…

M&A Reps and Warranties

Reps and Warranties: Common Issues and Resolutions

All Purchase and Sale agreements (“PSAs”) have sections called buyer and seller reps and warranties.  The intent of these sections is to disclose and describe any known issues in the business and to address how they will be dealt with.  It is generally accepted that any issues that come up post-sale, but that existed or…

Merger Definition

Mergers and Acquisitions Definitions: the Full List

The post, Merger & Acquisition (M&A) Acronyms, Abbreviations and Definitions described the various terms used throughout the M&A process. Here we list Mergers and Acquisitions definitions alphabetically and try to add a little color about their significance. CAGR: Cumulative Average Growth Rate.  For example, revenues growing 30% in the first year, then 10 % in…

Purchase and Sale Agreement

The Purchase and Sale Agreement Explained

The Purchase and Sale Agreement (PSA or SPA in the case of a Share Purchase Agreement) is one document in a set of final documents that completes a company sale transaction.  Other documents typically include employment agreements, escrow agreements, non-competition agreements, releases, schedules and more depending on the type of transaction being contemplated. Importance of…